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Mesoamerican Cultures

Toltecas

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The town tolteca was based on the South part of the state of Hidalgo. They lived in the beginning in Tulancingo and adelnate they more made its capital in the city of Tula, that had great importance because it was head of a new state, whose influence was decesiva in different groups. Forms of government: The toltecas were capable hunters and were considered a town soldier, because they maintained constant fights with neighboring tribes, but when settling down in Tula, the town tolteca became a civilized town. In the state tolteca it predominated the chaste military man, the imperialistic expansion, the conquests and the tributes of the neighboring towns. The society tolteca divided itself in two classes: the superior group integrated by jerarcas the military, civil employees, the supreme governor and the priests, who were to the service of the chaste military man and they were in charge to take care of the cult. The inferior or operated class was integrated by agricultural workers and craftsmen. Between the most important governors of the town tolteca they emphasize: "EC Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcˇatl. It was doubtlessly most important of the governors, considered cultural hero of the pre-Hispanic world. With the name of Quetzalcˇatl it was venerated like God. It took a very prosperous reign in where this civilization reached its maximum development. It imposed the practice of the human sacrifices that its town rendered to Tezcatlipoca. "HuÚmac She was the last governor tolteca. His government, considered despotic, lasted of sixty years. During this period many conflicts between toltecas-chichimecas existed and nonoalcas. With this governor the decline of Tula culminated. Religion: Its main God was Quetzalcˇatl, God of the good, man and priest, symbol of intelligence of this town. Other Gods were Tezcatlipoca, God at night and the darknesses, Tlaloc, God of rain and Tonatiuh, God of the Sun. The ceremonial center of Tula has pyramids, rooms and games of ball. Great figures of soldiers are distinguished there, Atlantes calls, and tzompantli was constructed for the first time macabre, a wall in which the heads of the sacrificed ones were placed. Agriculture: Small systems of dams and channels practiced agriculture using, because in that region rains are not abundant. The economy of the toltecas was in the beginning based on agriculture cultivating maize, frijol, Chile, cotton and maguey with which elaborated pulque; later in the production of crafts as the cotton article spinning and weave, as well as the commerce and also in the tribute Astronomy: They devised three calendars: the monk, the lot and the founded one on the movements of the Venus planet. Art: The toltecas were remarkable architects, filled of pyramids the region. Also they emphasized in the monument sculpture, in addition to being goldsmiths, weavers and embroiderers. One of the more important artistic manifestations of this civilization went the Temple to Quetzalcˇatl. In the superior part of this construction they are the Atlantes, sculptures of five meters of height, elaborated in stone, that represent soldiers. The archaeological rest show that the city, although presents/displays all the inherited basic elements of Teotihuacan, had in addition a constructive development that revolutionized the mesoamericano architectonic pattern. This architecture was characterized, mainly, by ample nears space, with high ceilings maintained by columns and pilasters. Climate: The zone tolteca consists of two climates, one semi-arid and rainier other associated to the Mountain range Eastern Mother. The relief is characterized by the valley presence ample watered by important rivers. Fauna: They did not have fauna in I specify but a type of fauna of tempered zone comoliebres, deer, serpents, coyotes, etc Flora: Nopal, maiz, frijol and pumpkin

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