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Mesoamerican Cultures

Mayas

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Forms of government: This culture had a political organization of the sprouting of the State like being able organized. With which the individual freedom falls and takes step to a dictatorship situation. The head or gentleman of the Mayans was the Halachunic (true man). Religion: Its religion was politeísta, like the other mesoaméicanas cultures. Their Gods represented the natural forces. They adored the Earth, the Sun (Kinich Ahau or Kinich-Kakmoo), the Moon and the water (Ixchel), rain (Chac), the wind (Kakulkán), the sky (Itzamná), the dead (Ah Puch), the maize (Yum Kax) and the cacao (Ek-Chuah). The influence of Teotihuacan can be appreciated with the appearance of the figure of Tlaloc and the sign of the year, I inflict tolteca with the use of the emplumada serpent (Quetzalcóatl), and more things. Agriculture: The agriculture alternate with the harvesting of the hunting and the fishing. The base of the feeding constituted the maize and in its absence the seed of the tree Ramon, whose flour is very nutritious; frijol and the pumpkin, tubercles several, chili peppers and fruits like ahuacate, zapotes, soursops, guayabas and cacao, etc. The cotton and henequén like textiles used; and tambiént tenian like custom to smoke tobacco. The agricultural work made it with base in a very common system, call of rose and burns, that forced to them to rotate the sites so that the Earth rested and returned to be fertile. Astronomy: Supported in the observation they studied and they registered the course of the stars. With rudimentary instruments, they fixed the passage of the Sun by the zenith. In Palenque, the tower of the Palace was used for observations of that type, like the Caracol. They indicated the revolutions of the Sun, the Moon and several stars sinódicas. They needed the lunar revolution in 29 days and means; the one of the Sun in 365 days and fraction, the one of Venus in 584 and fraction. They predicted the solar eclipses. They noticed the apparent inmovilidad of the polestar, that served to them as guide in its routes. Mathematics: The Mayans received from olmecas and zapotecas the vigesimal numeration to which they added the use of the zero. With those numbers they added, they reduced, they multiplied and they divided. Also they made important astronomical and calendáricos calculations. They used as signs the point and the bar, equivalent to the one and cinco..El zero represented like a small snail or a flower of four petals. With the three signs: points, I sweep and zeros wrote amounts of limitless magnitude. Art: History and the knowledge in general of the Mayans are enrolled in as extraordinary literary monuments as the Popol Vuh, the theater books of the Chilares and works like the Raabinal Achí, testimonies that hope their integral deciphering to know more thorough amazing history that culture. Mayan the classic ones developed, according to the regions, diverse styles in architecture, painting, sculpture and other arts, in which they unfolded a high degree of technical quality. The work of the artists estivo intimately related to the social, cultural and political characteristics of its surroundings. The ritual unfolding was essential to reaffirm the political power. The great architectonic, escultóricos and pictorial sets served like scenes for cortesana the ritual activity and, which involved the use of luxurious devices, luxuriously elaborated, such as personal clothes, adornments and others of ritual use. Between these objects, those of luxury also comprised of funeral utensils, whose degree that elaboration reflected the category of the individual in life. Largely, the art of the classic period was derived from models originated during the preclassic one. Nevertheless it was in the classic period when the highest levels of artistic elaboration were reached, as much in the monumental arts as in the portable objects. From century XVI the Mayan architecture has powerfully called the attention of the European. Their pyramids, temples and palaces had been left time back, but the forest and the lack of information acted like incentives for his first students. Climate: In the North zone: dry and regularly warm climate too much. In the central zone: hot and humid climate, with abundant rains in the season. The vegetation is of tropical type. In the South zone: The climate is tempered and cold in the mountainous areas, with hot and humid zones, populated with dense pine groves and cypresses in its majority. Flora: In some regions mighty rivers existed, in the northern region they were little and was necessary to take advantage of the one well the natural wells. They had a network of channels near rivers. The water was the indispensable element in agriculture Fauna: The tropical forest gave them of deer, tapires, tespezcuincles, armadillos, rabbits, jaguars, pumas, monkeys. Between the birds they had the turkey or guajolote, the pheasant, the perdiz, the quail, the quetzal, guacamayas, parrots, herons, toucans and many more.

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